Feature Extraction/Selection - What I've learnt so far
A couple of weeks ago I wrote about some feature extraction work that I'd done on the Kaggle Digit Recognizer data set and having realised that I had no idea what I was doing I thought I should probably learn a bit more.
I came across Dunja Mladenic's 'Dimensionality Reduction by Feature Selection in Machine Learning' presentation in which she sweeps across the landscape of feature selection and explains how everything fits together.
The talk starts off by going through some reasons that we'd want to use dimensionality reduce/feature selection:
- Improve the prediction performance
- Improve learning efficiency
- Provide faster predictors possibly requesting less information on the original data
- Reduce complexity of the learned results, enable better understanding of the underlying process
Mladenic suggests that there are a few ways we can go about reducing the dimensionality of data:
- Selecting a subset of the original features
- Constructing features to replace the original features
- Using background knowledge to construct new features to be used in addition to the original features
The talk focuses on the first of these and a lot of it focuses on how we can go about using feature selection as a pre-processing step on our data sets.
The approach seems to involve either starting with all the features and removing them one at a time and seeing how the outcome is affected or starting with none of the features and adding them one at a time.
However, about half way through the talk Mladenic points out that some algorithms actually have feature selection built into them so there's no need to have the pre-processing step.
I think this is the case with random forests of decision trees because the decision trees are constructed by taking into account which features give the greatest information gain so low impact features are less likely to be used.
I previously wrote a blog post describing how I removed all the features with zero variance from the data set and after submitting a random forest trained on the new data set we saw no change in accuracy which proved the point.
I also came across an interesting paper by Isabelle Guyon & Andre Elisseeff titled 'An Introduction to Variable and Feature Selection' which has a flow chart-ish set of questions to help you work out where to start.
One of the things I picked up from reading this paper is that if you have domain knowledge then you might be able to construct a better set of features by making use of this knowledge.
Another suggestion is to come up with a variable ranking for each feature i.e. how much that feature contributes to the outcome/prediction. This is something also suggested in the Coursera Data Analysis course and in R we can use the glm function to help work this out.
The authors also point out that we should separate the problem of model selection (i.e. working out which features to use) from the problem of testing our classifier.
To test the classifier we'd most likely keep a test set aside but we shouldn't use this data for testing feature selection, rather we should use the training data. Cross validation probably works best here.
There's obviously more covered in the presentation & paper than what I've covered here but I've found that in general the material I've come across tends to drift towards being quite abstract/theoretical and therefore quite difficult for me to follow.
If anyone has come across any articles/books which explain how to go about feature selection using an example I'd love to read it/them!